A comparison of outcome measures used to report clubfoot treatment with the Ponseti method: results from a cohort in Harare, Zimbabwe.

BACKGROUND:
There are various established scoring systems to assess the outcome of clubfoot treatment after correction with the Ponseti method. We used five measures to compare the results in a cohort of children followed up for between 3.5 to 5 years.

METHODS:
In January 2017 two experienced physiotherapists assessed children who had started treatment between 2011 and 2013 in one clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. The length of time in treatment was documented. The Roye score, Bangla clubfoot assessment tool, the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) tool, proportion of relapsed and of plantigrade feet were used to assess the outcome of treatment in the cohort. Inter-observer variation was calculated for the two physiotherapists. A comparative analysis of the entire cohort, the children who had completed casting and the children who completed more than two years of bracing was undertaken. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated for the five measures and compared to full clinical assessment (gold standard) and whether referral for further intervention was required for re-casting or surgical review.

RESULTS:
31% (68/218) of the cohort attended for examination and were assessed. Of the children who were assessed, 24 (35%) had attended clinic reviews for 4-5 years, and 30 (44%) for less than 2 years. There was good inter-observer agreement between the two expert physiotherapists on all assessment tools. Overall success of treatment varied between 56 and 93% using the different outcome measures. The relapse assessment had the highest unnecessary referrals (19.1%), and the Roye score the highest proportion of missed referrals (22.7%). The ACT and Bangla score missed the fewest number of referrals (7.4%). The Bangla score demonstrated 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 79.5% (95%CI: 64.7-90.2%) specificity and the ACT score had 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 100% (95%CI: 92-100%) specificity in predicting the need for referral.

CONCLUSION:
At three to five years of follow up, the Ponseti method has a good success rate that improves if the child has completed casting and at least two years of bracing. The ACT score demonstrates good diagnostic accuracy for the need for referral for further intervention (specialist opinion or further casting). All tools demonstrated good reliability.

Provision of post-crash first aid by traffic police in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey.

BACKGROUND:
The availability of prehospital trauma care is an important means of reducing serious injuries and fatalities associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs). Lay responders such as traffic police play an important role in the provision of prehospital trauma care to RTI victims, especially where there is no established prehospital care system. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward post-crash first aid among traffic police officers in Tanzania.

METHOD:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July-September 2017 to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice and attitude among traffic police officers during provision of post-crash care. We used simple random technique to recruit 340 traffic police officers, self -administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The researchers used descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square tests to analyze the data.

RESULTS:
A total of 340 traffic police officers were surveyed. Nearly two thirds (65.3%) reported having had post-crash first aid on-the job training; a slightly larger proportion (70.9%) reported that they had cared for RTI victims in the previous year. The survey responses showed that, generally, traffic police officers’ level of knowledge about post-crash first aid to RTI victims was low-about 3% of the surveyed officers possessed knowledge at a level considered good. Also, there was a statistically significant correlation between higher educational attainment and greater knowledgeability (p = 0.015). Almost all of the officers (96%) had a positive attitude toward providing post-crash first aid to RTI victims.

CONCLUSIONS:
Improved training of Tanzania traffic police officers, by means of an updated post-crash first aid curriculum and updated resources is recommended. Also, user-friendly post-crash first aid leaflets should be provided to traffic police for their reference.

Neuroschistosomiasis mimicking lower back pain: case report of a rare differential diagnosis in a pediatric patient

Background
Spinal myelitis is an infrequent manifestation of spinal cord infection. It is caused by the Schistosoma species, which are endemic in South America, part of the Middle East, and Africa.

Case presentation
We report the case of a 13-year-old male adolescent complaining of progressive lower back pain and weakness of the lower extremities for 3 days. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical transverse myelitis. Subsequently, parasite serology showed a markedly elevated level of Schistosoma antibody titers, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis yielded normal results. Because of our presumptive diagnosis of neuroschistosomiasis, the patient was prescribed an empirical regimen of an anti-parasitic agent, after which his neurological deficit promptly subsided. The patient was followed for 1 year and showed a complete long-term resolution of symptoms.

Conclusions
This case highlights the increasing prevalence of neuroschistosomiasis in recent years, particularly in patients with a history of travel to endemic regions. Moreover, the study reports the clinicoradiological features of this enigmatic disorder. This rare occurrence potentiates further studies to address unanswered questions about neuroschistosomiasis.

Risk factors of orthopedic surgical site infection in Jordan: A prospective cohort study

Background
Orthopedic surgical site infection represents a hospital acquired infection among orthopedic surgery patients, which in turn delays normal recovery process and increases hospital length of stay and health care costs. As a result, risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection should be identified thereby allowing the application of protective interventions that may inhibit the occurrence of such infection.

Objectives
To determine risk factors of surgical site infection in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in Jordan.

Materials and methods
The study employed prospective, multi-center approach to collect data about orthopedic surgery patients through assessing their health status and reviewing their medical records and monitoring for occurrence of surgical site infection within 90 days after operation.

Results
286 patients met the eligibility criteria from 18 hospitals. Only surgical wound classification and length of postoperative stay wound were found to be significant risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection.

Conclusion
Surgical wound classification and length of postoperative stay were identified as risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection. Risk factors that did not predict occurrence of orthopedic surgical site infection can be identified by other research strategies than the one used in this study, which could be conducted retrospectively or by conducting prospective studies that are both community-based and hospital-based with larger sample sizes

Fellowship exit examination in orthopaedic surgery in the commonwealth countries of Australia, UK, South Africa and Canada. Are they comparable and equivalent? A perspective on the requirements for medical migration

nternational migration of healthcare professionals has increased substantially in recent decades. In order to practice medicine in the recipient country, International Medical Graduates (IMG) are required to fulfil the requirements of their new countries medical registration authorities. The purpose of this project was to compare the final fellowship exit examination in Orthopaedic Surgery for the UK, Australia, Canada and South Africa. The curriculum of the Australian Orthopaedic Association (SET) was selected as a baseline reference. The competencies and technical modules specified in the training syllabus, as well as the specifics of the final fellowship examination as outlined in SET, were then compared between countries. Of the nine competencies outlined in SET, the curricula of the UK, South Africa and Canada were all compatible with the Australian syllabus, and covered 97.7%, 86% and 93%, respectively, of all competencies and sub-items. The final fellowship examinations of Australia, South Africa and the UK were all highly similar in format and content. The examination in Canada was substantially different, and had two written sessions but combined the oral and clinical component into a structured OSCE using standardized patients and the component included unmanned stations. There were no significant differences for completion certificate of training and/or board certification observed between these countries. The results of this study strongly suggest that core and technical competencies outlined in the training and education curriculum and the final fellowship examination in Orthopaedic Surgery in Australia, South Africa and the UK are compatible. Between country reciprocal recognition of these fellowship examinations should not only be considered by the relevant Colleges, but should also be regulated by the individual countries health practitioner registration boards and governing bodies.

Percutaneous versus open pedicle screw instrumentation in treatment of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis

To assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation compared with conventionally open short-segment pedicle instrumentation and provide recommendations for using these procedures to treat thoracolumbar fractures.
The Medline database, Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register, and Embase were searched for articles published. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that compared percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation to open short-segment pedicle instrumentation and provided data on safety and clinical effects were included. Demographic characteristics, clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, and adverse events were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Methodological quality of included studies using Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scale and Cochrane collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias by 2 reviewers independently.
Nine studies encompassing 433 patients met the inclusion criteria. Subgroup meta-analyses were performed according to the study design. The pooled results showed there were significant differences between the 2 techniques in short- and long-term visual analog scale, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, postoperative draining loss, hospital stay, and incision size, although there were no significant differences in postoperative radiological outcomes, Oswestry Disability Index, hospitalization cost, intraoperative fluoroscopy time, and adverse events.
Percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation in cases with achieve satisfactory results, could replace in many cases extensive open surgery and not increased related complications. However, further high-quality RCTs are needed to assess the long-term outcome of patients between 2 techniques.

The clinical efficacy of using autologous platelet-rich plasma in total hip arthroplasty: A retrospective comparative study

This study evaluated whether intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might prevent postoperative bleeding in total hip arthroplasty (THA).In this study, 260 hips that underwent THA were evaluated randomly by paramedical staffs, 130 of which involved the intraoperative use of PRP, and 130 of which served as control group. Postoperative blood loss (drain bag volume), estimated blood loss, and change in hemoglobin (Hb) at day 1, 2, 4, and 7 were analyzed, respectively.PRP-treated group had a significant decrease in mean postoperative blood loss (92.6 ± 168.2 mL) compared to control group (682.3 ± 185.5 mL, P < .01). The mean postoperative estimated blood loss (526.1 ± 236.1 mL) in the PRP-treated group was significantly less than that in the control group (629.2.2 ± 142.3 mL, P < .01). There was a statistically significant difference in Hb value (mg/dL) at day 1, 2, 4, and 7 (-1.35 vs -1.98, -1.59 vs -2.52, -1.96 vs -2.82, and -1.76 vs -2.47, P < .05).We found a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss (drain bag volume), estimated blood loss, and change in Hb after the use of autologous platelet gel in patients of THA, and PRP appears to be effective in reducing postoperative bleeding in THA.

A case report of a polytrauma patient with penetrating iron rods in thorax and head

Impalement injury is an uncommon presentation, and penetrating chest injuries account for 1% to 13% of thoracic trauma hospital admissions. The vast majority of patients with penetrating thoracic trauma who survive to reach the hospital alive can be managed nonoperatively. Nevertheless, in 10% to 15% of cases, emergency operation is necessary due to the associated hemorrhagic shock and visceral injury.
Here, we report on a 39-year-old male, a construction worker, who fell down from a height of a construction site, landing ventrally on a clump of iron rods with 4 projecting heavy metallic rods penetrating into his thorax and head (scalp pierced only). Emergency surgery was taken, and the patient had an uneventful successful outcome.
After massive thoracic impalement, rapid transportation to a tertiary trauma center with the impaled objects in situ can improve the outcome. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is recommended to remove the foreign body under direct vision and to reduce the incidence of missed, potentially fatal vascular or visceral injuries.

Efficacy of Corrective Surgery for Gait and Energy Expenditure in Patients with Scoliosis: A Literature Review

The aim of this literature review was to evaluate selected original papers that measured gait parameters and energy expenditure in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) treated with surgical intervention. IS is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left–right trunk symmetry. Consequently, IS can modify human gait. Spinal fusions remain the primary approach to correcting scoliosis deformities, thereby halting progression. Using the population intervention comparison outcome measure framework and selected keywords, 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Alteration of spatial and temporal variables in patients with IS was contradictory among the selected studies. Ankle and foot kinematics did not change after surgery; however, pelvic and hip frontal motions increased and pelvic rotation decreased following surgery. Patients with IS continued to show excessive energy expenditure following surgery in the absence of a physical rehabilitation protocol. Spinal surgery may be considered for gait improvement and IS treatment. There were inadequate data regarding the effect of corrective surgery on the kinetics, energy expenditure, and muscle activity parameters.

Preliminary radiological result after establishment of hospital-based trauma registry in level-1 trauma hospital in developing country setting, prospective cohort study.

INTRODUCTION:
Injuries are the second most common cause of disability, the fifth most common cause of healthy years of life lost per 1000 people and unfortunately 90% of mortality takes place in low-to middle-income countries. Trauma registries guide policymakers and health care providers in decision making in terms of resource allocation as well as enhancing trauma care outcomes. Furthermore data from these registries inform policy makers to decrease the rate of death and disability occurring as a result of injuries. We present our experience in setting up an orthopedic trauma registry and the first short term follow-up of radiological outcomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY:
Our study is a non-funded, non-commercial, prospective cohort study that was registered at Research Registry. The primary objectives of our study included assessing pattern of injuries in patients with upper and lower limb skeletal trauma presenting to our tertiary care academic university hospital and their respective outcomes. Data was collected by the musculoskeletal service line team members supervised by an experienced research associate and trauma consultants. The work has been reported in line with the STROCSS criteria.

RESULTS:
A total of 177 patients were included in this analysis, of whom 101 (57.1%) patients had lower limb fractures, 64(36.1%) patients ad upper limb fractures and 12 (6.8%) patients had both upper and lower limbs involved. A total of 189 upper and lower limb fracture cases were recorded. 176 patients (93.1%) underwent surgeries and 13(6.9%) were managed nonoperatively. Roentgenographic outcomes were assessed using radiological criteria for each bone fractured.

CONCLUSION:
Establishing a trauma registry assists in identification of the pattern of injuries presenting to the hospital which helps in priority setting, care management and planning. This continuous audit of outcomes in turn, plays a significant role in quality improvement.