Wide Dissection and Intercostal Vessel Division Allows for Repair of Hypoplastic Aortic Arch Through Thoracotomy.


The approach to coarctation of the aorta with hypoplastic aortic arch is controversial. We evaluated the outcomes in patients with coarctation of the aorta with or without hypoplastic aortic arch operated through a posterior left lateral thoracotomy.
A retrospective cohort of patients with aortic coarctation, who underwent repair between January 2009 and October 2017, was analyzed. Preoperative, postoperative, and echocardiographic characteristics were reviewed. Statistical analysis examined survival, freedom from reintervention, and freedom from recoarctation.
In nine years, 389 patients who underwent surgical treatment for coarctation of the aorta were identified; after exclusion criteria and complete echocardiographic reports, 143 patients were analyzed, of which 29 patients had hypoplastic aortic arch. The modification in the extended end-to-end anastomosis technique was a wide dissection and mobilization of the descending aorta that was achieved due to the ligation and division of 3 to 5 intercostal vessels. In both groups, patients were close to one month of age and had a median weight of 3.6 and 3.4 kg for hypoplastic and nonhypoplastic arch, respectively. In postoperative events, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups ( P = .57 for renal failure, P = .057 for transient, nonpermanent neurologic events, P = .496 for sepsis), as for intensive care unit ( P = .502) and total in-hospital stay ( P = .929). There was one case of postoperative mortality in each group and both were associated with noncardiac comorbidities. Regarding survival (log-rank = 0.060), freedom from reintervention (log-rank = 0.073), and freedom from recoarctation (log-rank = 0.568), there was no statistically significant difference between the groups.
We believe that it is the modified technique that allowed greater mobilization of the aorta and successful repair of hypoplastic arch through thoracotomy, without an increase in paraplegia or other adverse outcomes.

Propensity score matching comparison of laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a middle-income country: short-term outcomes and cost analysis.


Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is associated with improved postoperative outcomes compared to open surgery; however, economic studies have yielded contradictory results. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and economic outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for patients with rectal cancer.Propensity score matching analysis was performed in a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent elective low anterior resection for rectal cancer treatment by laparoscopic and open surgery in a single Brazilian cancer center. Matched covariates included age, gender, body mass index, pTNM stage, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of anesthesia, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and index surgery. The clinical and economic outcomes were evaluated. The follow-up period was within 30 days of the index procedure. The clinical outcomes were reoperation, postoperative complications, operative time, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and postoperative hospital stay. For economic outcomes, a cost analysis was used to compare the costs.Initially, 220 patients were evaluated. After propensity score matching, 100 patients were included in the analysis (50 patients in the open surgery group and 50 patients in the laparoscopic surgery group). There were no differences in patients’ baseline characteristics. Operative time was longer for laparoscopic surgery (247 minutes vs 285 minutes, P=0.006). There were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes. The hospital costs were similar between the two groups (Brazilian reais 21,233.15 vs Brazilian reais 21,529.28, P=0.115), although the intraoperative costs were higher for laparoscopic surgery, mainly owing to the surgical devices and the theater-related costs. The postoperative costs were lower for laparoscopic surgery, owing to lower intensive care unit, ward, and reoperation costs.Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is not costlier than open surgery from the health care provider’s perspective, since the intraoperative costs were offset by lower postoperative costs. Open surgery tends to have a longer length of stay.

Caesarean sections and the prevalence of preterm and early-term births in Brazil: secondary analyses of national birth registration.


To investigate whether the high rates of caesarean sections (CSs) in Brazil have impacted on the prevalence of preterm and early-term births.Individual-level, cross-sectional analyses of a national database.All hospital births occurring in the country in 2015.2 903 716 hospital-delivered singletons in 3157 municipalities, representing >96% of the country’s births.CS rates and gestational age distribution (<37, 37-38, 39-41 and 42 or more weeks' gestation). Outcomes were analysed according to maternal education, measured in years of schooling and municipal CS rates. Analyses were also adjusted for maternal age, marital status and parity.Prevalence of CS was 55.5%, preterm prevalence (<37 weeks' gestation) was 10.1% and early-term births (37-38 weeks of gestation) represented 29.8% of all births, ranging from 24.9% among women with 12 years of education. The adjusted prevalence ratios of preterm and early-term birth were, respectively, 1.215 (1.174-1.257) and 1.643 (1.616-1.671) higher in municipalities with≥80% CS compared with those <30%.Brazil faces three inter-related epidemics: a CS epidemic; an epidemic of early-term births, associated with the high CS rates; and an epidemic of preterm birth, also associated with CS but mostly linked to poverty-related risk factors. The high rates of preterm and early-term births produce an excess of newborns at higher risk of short-term morbidity and mortality, as well as long-term developmental problems. Compared with high-income countries, there is an annual excess of 354 000 preterm and early-term births in Brazil.

Adult Intussusception due to Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Case Report, Comprehensive Literature Review, and Diagnostic Challenges in Low-Resource Countries.


We present a rare case of gastrogastric intussusception due to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and the largest comprehensive literature review of published case reports on gastrointestinal (GI) intussusception due to GIST in the past three decades. We found that the common presenting symptoms were features of gastrointestinal obstruction and melena. We highlight the diagnostic challenges faced in low-resource countries. Our findings emphasize the importance of early clinical diagnosis in low-resource settings in order to guide timely management. In addition, histological analysis of the tumor for macroscopic and microscopic characteristics including mitotic index and c-Kit/CD117 status should be obtained to guide adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate. Periodic follow-up to access tumor recurrence is fundamental and should be the standard of care.

Early detection and treatment strategies for breast cancer in low-income and upper middle-income countries: a modelling study.


Poor breast cancer survival in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be attributed to advanced-stage presentation and poor access to systemic therapy. We aimed to estimate the outcomes of different early detection strategies in combination with systemic chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in LMICs.We adapted a microsimulation model to project outcomes of three early detection strategies alone or in combination with three systemic treatment programmes beyond standard of care (programme A): programme B was endocrine therapy for all oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive cases; programme C was programme B plus chemotherapy for ER-negative cases; programme D was programme C plus chemotherapy for advanced ER-positive cases. The main outcomes were reductions in breast cancer-related mortality and lives saved per 100 000 women relative to the standard of care for women aged 30-49 years in a low-income setting (East Africa; using incidence data and life tables from Uganda and data on tumour characteristics from various East African countries) and for women aged 50-69 years in a middle-income setting (Colombia).In the East African setting, relative mortality reductions were 8-41%, corresponding to 23 (95% uncertainty interval -12 to 49) to 114 (80 to 138) lives saved per 100 000 women over 10 years. In Colombia, mortality reductions were 7-25%, corresponding to 32 (-29 to 70) to 105 (61 to 141) lives saved per 100 000 women over 10 years.The best projected outcomes were in settings where access to both early detection and adjuvant therapy is improved. Even in the absence of mammographic screening, improvements in detection can provide substantial benefit in settings where advanced-stage presentation is common.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington Cancer Consortium Cancer Center Support Grant of the US National Institutes of Health.

Epidemiology, prognostic factors, and outcome of trauma patients admitted in a Brazilian intensive care unit.


Trauma is a major cause of hospital admissions and is associated with manifold complications and high mortality rates. However, data on intensive care unit (ICU) admissions are scarce in developing and low-income countries, where its incidence has been increasing.To analyze epidemiological and clinical factors and outcomes in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of a public teaching hospital in a developing country as well as to identify risk factors for complications in the ICU.Retrospective cohort of adult trauma patients admitted to the general ICU of a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil in the year 2012. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data from the ICU were analyzed.During the study period, 144 trauma patients were admitted (83% male, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score II =18.6±7.2, age =33.3 years, 93% required mechanical ventilation). Of these, 60.4% suffered a traffic accident (52% motorcycle), and 31.2% were victims of violence (aggressions, gunshot wounds, or stabbing); 71% had brain trauma, 37% had chest trauma, and 21% had abdominal trauma. Patients with trauma presented a high incidence of complications, such as infections, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and thrombocytopenia. The ICU mortality rate was 22.9%.In a Brazilian public teaching ICU, there was a great variability of trauma etiologies (mainly traffic accidents with motorcycles and victims of violence); patients with trauma had a high incidence of complications and mortality in the ICU.

Long-term repercussions of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a low-income population: assessment ten years after surgery.


to evaluate the weight, nutritional and quality of life of low-income patients after ten years of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).we conducted a longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study evaluating the excess weight loss, weight regain, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, anemia and hypoalbuminemia in 42 patients of social classes D and E submitted to RYGB. We assessed quality of life through the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS).of the 42 patients, 68.3% defined themselves as doing non-regular physical activity, and only 44.4% and 11.9% had regular medical and nutritional follow-up, respectively. We found a mean excess weight loss of 75.6%±12 (CI=71.9-79.4), and in only one patient there was insufficient weight loss. The mean weight loss was 22.3%±16.2 (CI=17.2-27.3) with 64.04% of the sample presenting regain greater than 15% of the minimum weight; 52.3% of the sample presented anemia after ten years of surgery and 47.6%, iron deficiency. We found hypoalbuminemia in 16.6% of the sample. There was remission of hypertension in 66%, and of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in 50%. BAROS showed an improvement in the quality of life of 85.8% of the patients.in a population with different socioeconomic limitations, RYGB maintained satisfactory results regarding weight loss, but inefficient follow-up may compromise the final result, especially with regard to nutritional deficiencies.avaliar a evolução ponderal, nutricional e a qualidade de vida de pacientes de baixa renda, após dez anos de derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR).estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo e descritivo, que avaliou a perda do excesso de peso, o reganho de peso, a evolução da hipertensão arterial, do diabetes mellitus tipo 2, da anemia e da hipoalbuminemia em 42 pacientes de classes sociais D e E submetidos à DGYR. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através do Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS).dos 42 pacientes, 68,3% se definiram como não praticantes de atividade física regular, e somente 44,4% e 11,9% tinham acompanhamento médico e nutricional regulares, respectivamente. Foi encontrada média da perda do excesso de peso de 75,6%±12 (IC=71,9-79,4) e perda ponderal insuficiente apenas em um paciente. O reganho ponderal médio foi de 22,3%±16,2 (IC=17,2-27,3), com 64,04% da amostra apresentando reganho maior do que 15% do peso mínimo. 52,3% da amostra apresentou anemia após dez anos de cirurgia e 47,6% deficiência de ferro. Hipoalbuminemia foi encontrada em 16,6% da amostra. Houve remissão da HAS em 66% e do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em 50%. O BAROS demonstrou melhora na qualidade de vida em 85,8% dos pacientes.pudemos observar, em uma população com diversas limitações socioeconômicas, que a DGYR manteve resultados satisfatórios quanto à perda peso, mas o seguimento ineficiente pode comprometer o resultado final, especialmente no que diz respeito às deficiências nutricionais.

Surgical Site Infections Rates in More Than 13,000 Surgical Procedures in Three Cities in Peru: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium


BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a threat to patient safety. However, there are not available data on SSI rates stratified by surgical procedure (SP) in Peru.

METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2010, a cohort prospective surveillance study on SSIs was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in four hospitals in three cities of Peru. Data were recorded from hospitalized patients using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods and definitions for SSI. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 4 types, according to ICD-9 criteria.

RESULTS: We recorded 352 SSIs, associated to 13,904 SPs (2.5%; CI, 2.3-2.8) SSI rates per type of SP were the following for this study’s Peruvian hospitals, compared with rates of the INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 2.9% for appendix surgery (vs. 2.9% vs. 1.4%); 2.8% for gallbladder surgery (vs. 2.5% vs. 0.6%); 2.2% for cesarean section (vs. 0.7% vs. 1.8%); 2.8% for vaginal hysterectomy (vs. 2.0% vs. 0.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our SSIs rates were higher in all of the four analyzed types of SPs compared with CDC-NHSN, whereas compared with INICC, most rates were similar. This study represents an important advance in the knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Peru that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.