Incidence of pyramidal thyroid lobe in the university college hospital Ibadan


The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is derived from remnant of the thyroglossal duct. Its presence may be missed clinically; however radiologic and intra-operative findings reveal its presence in up to 50% of cases. The incidence of pyramidal lobe is however not clearly known in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Nigeria. Our aim is to determine the incidence and histological variation of pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland among surgical patients who underwent thyroid surgery in the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Consecutive surgical patients that underwent total thyroidectomy in the Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan between April 2013 and April 2017 were recruited irrespective of age, sex and clinical diagnosis. The presence, anatomy and subsequent histological diagnosis of the pyramidal lobe were noted.
One hundred sixty thyroid surgeries were done. Pyramidal lobe was found in 70 patients (44.0%). The presence of the pyramidal lobe was most often associated with multinodular goitres 42 (61.8%) and least found in thyroids with malignant tumours 3 (4.4%). The pyramidal lobe originated commonly from the midline (50.0%) and least from the right (10.3%). The length of the pyramidal lobes ranged from 8 to 80 mm (average 50 mm) in males and 5 to 54 mm (average 42 mm) in females.
The presence of a pyramidal lobe is not uncommon in people of southwestern Nigeria with its morphologic and histologic profile akin to what obtains in other geographical locations of the world.

Utilisation of blood and blood products during open heart surgery in a low-income country: our local experience in 3 years


In Nigeria, access to open heart surgery (OHS) is adversely affected by insufficient blood and blood products, including the challenges because of the lack of patient-focused blood management strategies owing to the absent requisite point-of-care tests in the operating theatre (OR)/ICU. In addition, the limited availability of altruistic blood donors including the detection of transfusion transmitted infections more commonly among non-altruistic blood donors is another burden affecting the management of excessive bleeding during and after open heart surgery in our country.
The objective of this study was to review our local experience in the use of blood and blood products during open heart surgery and compare the same with the literature.Materials and methodsIn a period of 3 years (March, 2013-February, 2016), we performed a retrospective review of those who had open heart surgery in our institution. The data were obtained from our hospital health information technology department. The data comprised demography, types of operative procedures and units of blood and blood products transfused per procedure, including the details regarding the usage of the cell saver, as well as those who had severe bleeding requiring excessive blood transfusion.
During the study period, 102 patients had open heart surgery, an average of 34 cases in a year. Among them, there were 75 (73.53%) males and 37 (36.27%) females, giving a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients were from 0.6 (7/12) to 74 years. Mitral valve procedure was the most common (n=22, 21.6%) surgery type. Transfusion requirements averaged 1.9 units of fresh frozen plasma, 0.36 units of platelet concentrate, and 1.68 units of packed cells per procedure. The least common surgical procedure was common atrium repair (n=1, 0.01%).
Open heart procedure is a very complex procedure requiring cardiopulmonary bypass with associated severe perioperative bleeding. The attendant blood loss and haemostatic challenges are combated by intricate and selective transfusions of allogeneic blood and or blood products.

Challenges to providing open heart surgery for 186 million Nigerians


Background: Open heart surgery is nonexistent or undeveloped in many African countries due to the prerequisite for specialized multispecialty teams, expensive equipment, and consumables. This review aims to outline strategies for facilitating local skilled workforce training, improve patients’ access, and sustain heart surgery in Africa’s most populous nation. Methods: We reviewed the demographic, socioeconomic, and health metrics published by the United Nations, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, and other relevant sources for the top three African economies – South Africa, Nigeria, and Egypt. Results: South Africa classified as upper-middle-income nation with gross national income [GNI] $12,475–$4126 spends 8.8% of gross domestic product (GDP), while Egypt and Nigeria both classified as lower-middle-income nations GNI $4125–$1046 spends 5.6% and 3.7% of GDP, respectively, on health care. Egypt performed 45%, South Africa 39%, and Nigeria 0.1% of their WHO projected annual heart surgery volume in 2015. These capacities are consistent with the human development index (HDI), thoracic surgeon-to-population ratio, and health insurance coverage ranking of these countries. Conclusion: Although gross income per capita is comparable, the HDI – a better discriminator of development is higher in Egypt with 0.69 against 0.51 in Nigeria, as evidenced by their respective heart surgery capacities. While the WHO projected 72,000 cases/annum for Nigeria is unattainable with the present workforce, the Pan African Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery (PASCATS) 40/1 million population projection of 7200 cases/annum appears a more realistic goal. However achieving even this modest target will require government political willpower and increased budgetary allocation for expanding insurance coverage. PASCATS advocates three mentorship models: resident senior local consultant, mission teams and senior expatriate consultant, with centralization through regional referral centers as viable pathways to develop cardiac surgery in sub Saharan Africa. Regionalization optimizes the scarce workforce and resources and therefore by combining assets can fast track skill acquisition by trainee surgeons.

Demand and capacity to integrate pelvic organ prolapse and genital fistula services in low-resource settings.


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:
There is a need for expanded access to safe surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as illustrated by the report of the 2015 Lancet Commission on Global Surgery. Packages of closely-related surgical procedures may create platforms of capacity that maximize impact in LMIC. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and genital fistula care provide an example. Although POP affects many more women in LMICs than fistula, donor support for fistula treatment in LMICs has been underway for decades, whereas treatment for POP is usually limited to hysterectomy-based surgical treatment, occurring with little to no donor support. This capacity-building discrepancy has resulted in POP care that is often non-adherent to international standards and in non-integration of POP and fistula services, despite clear areas of similarity and overlap. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential value of integrating POP services at fistula centers.

METHODS:
Fistula repair sites supported by the Fistula Care Plus project were surveyed on current demand for and capacity to provide POP, in addition to perceptions about integrating POP and fistula repair services.

RESULTS:
Respondents from 26 hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia completed the survey. Most fistula centers (92%) reported demand for POP services, but many cannot meet this demand. Responses indicated a wide variation in assessment and grading practices for POP; approaches to lower urinary tract symptom evaluation; and surgical skills with regard to compartment-based POP, and urinary and rectal incontinence. Fistula surgeons identified integration synergies but also potential conflicts.

CONCLUSIONS:
Integration of genital fistula and POP services may enhance the quality of POP care while increasing the sustainability of fistula care.

Global Unmet Needs in Cardiac Surgery.


More than 6 billion people live outside industrialized countries and have insufficient access to cardiac surgery. Given the recently confirmed high prevailing mortality for rheumatic heart disease in many of these countries together with increasing numbers of patients needing interventions for lifestyle diseases due to an accelerating epidemiological transition, a significant need for cardiac surgery could be assumed. Yet, need estimates were largely based on extrapolated screening studies while true service levels remained unknown. A multi-author effort representing 16 high-, middle-, and low-income countries was undertaken to narrow the need assessment for cardiac surgery including rheumatic and lifestyle cardiac diseases as well as congenital heart disease on the basis of existing data deduction. Actual levels of cardiac surgery were determined in each of these countries on the basis of questionnaires, national databases, or annual reports of national societies. Need estimates range from 200 operations per million in low-income countries that are nonendemic for rheumatic heart disease to >1,000 operations per million in high-income countries representing the end of the epidemiological transition. Actually provided levels of cardiac surgery range from 0.5 per million in the assessed low- and lower-middle income countries (average 107 ± 113 per million; representing a population of 1.6 billion) to 500 in the upper-middle-income countries (average 270 ± 163 per million representing a population of 1.9 billion). By combining need estimates with the assessment of de facto provided levels of cardiac surgery, it emerged that a significant degree of underdelivery of often lifesaving open heart surgery does not only prevail in low-income countries but is also disturbingly high in middle-income countries.

Decreasing birth asphyxia: utility of statistical process control in a low-resource setting.


The neonatal period is a critical time for survival of the child. A disproportionate amount of neonatal deaths occur in low-resource countries and are attributable to perinatal events, especially birth asphyxia. This project aimed to reduce the incidence of birth asphyxia by 20% by June 2014 through training in neonatal resuscitation and improving the availability of resuscitation equipment in the delivery room in the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. A prospective, longitudinal study using statistical process control analytical methods was done enrolling babies delivered at the National Hospital Abuja. Low Apgar scores or birth asphyxia (defined a priori as any score <7 at 1, 5 and/or at 10 min) was assessed. To ensure reliability and validity of Apgar scoring, trainings on scoring were held for labour and delivery staff. Interventions included provision of additional equipment and trainings on neonatal resuscitation. Apgar scores were aggregated weekly over 25 months. Control charts with three SE confidence limits were used to monitor the proportion of scores ≤7. The baseline incidence of low Apgar scores, as defined a priori, was 33%, 17% and 10% while postintervention the incidence was 18%, 17% and 6% at 1, 5 and 10 min, respectively-a reduction of 45% and 40% in the 1-min and 10-min low Apgar scores. Increased communication, additional resuscitation equipment and training of delivery personnel on neonatal resuscitation are associated with reductions in measures of birth asphyxia. These improvements have been sustained and efforts are ongoing to spread our interventions to other special care delivery units/nursery in adjoining states. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of using improvement science methods to assess and improve perinatal outcome in low-resource settings.

A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of breast disorders detected by clinical breast examination during pregnancy and six months postpartum in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.


Breast disorders cause great anxiety for women especially when they occur in pregnancy because breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer related deaths in women. Majority of the disorders are Benign Breast Diseases (BBD) with various degrees of associated breast cancer risks. With increasing breast cancer awareness in Nigeria, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of breast disorders among a cohort of pregnant women.A longitudinal study of 1248 pregnant women recruited in their first trimester- till 26 weeks gestational age consecutively from selected antenatal clinics (ANCs), in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A pretested interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to collect information at recruitment. Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) using MammaCare® technique was performed at recruitment and follow up visits at third trimester, six weeks postpartum and six months postpartum. Women with breast disorders were referred for Breast Ultrasound Scan (BUS) and those with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) ≥4 had ultrasound guided biopsy. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 14.Mean age of participants was 29.7 ± 5.2 years and mean gestational age at recruitment was 20.4 ± 4.4 weeks. Seventy-two participants (5.8%) had a past history of BBD and 345 (27.6%) were primigravidae. Overall, breast disorder was detected among 223 (17.9%) participants and 149 (11.9%) had it detected at baseline. Findings from the CBE showed that 208 (69.6%) of 299 breast disorders signs found were palpable lumps or thickenings in the breast, 28 (9.4%) were persistent pain, and 63 (21.1%) were abscesses, infection and mastitis. Twenty out of 127 (15.7%) participants who had BUS performed were classified as BIRADS ≥3. Lesions found by BUS were reactive lymph nodes (42.5%), prominent ducts (27.1%), fibroadenoma (9.6%), breast cysts (3.8%) and fibrocystic changes (2.5%). No malignant pathology was found on ultrasound guided biopsy.Breast lump is a major breast disorder among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ibadan. Routine clinical breast examination and follow up of pregnant women found with breast disorders could facilitate early detection of pregnancy associated breast cancer in low resource settings.

Skull Base Surgery in a Large, Resource-Poor, Developing Country with Few Neurosurgeons: Prospects, Challenges, and Needs


BACKGROUND: Upon returning home to Nigeria from post residency fellowship training in skull base surgery, using expertise gained overseas, we applied appropriate treatment to various skull base pathologies. This is an audit of our initial experience.
METHODS: This is a prospective, descriptive survey of all the skull base pathologies operated on during 30 months. Clinical-demographic data, surgical procedures, and the postoperative outcome are presented statistically. Simple inferential statistics was performed for associations deemed significant at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: Fifty-one individuals (27 men and 24 women, mean age 32 years) were operated on for skull base pathologies. Clinical presentation had a mean symptom duration of 22 months
and a poor clinical status in more than 60% of the patients. Congenital, infective, traumatic, and neoplastic lesions were encountered, including craniofacial malignancies operated on jointly with other craniofacial surgeons. Other intracranial neurosurgical pathologies like jugular foramen and brain stem tumors, and meningiomas of various skull base corridors, including the cavernous sinus and the foramen magnum, were encountered. Our skull base dissections were craniofacial in 23.5% of cases, anterolateral in 33.3%, midbasal in 15.7%, and posterior fossa in 27.5% of patients. Surgery was successful in 86.3%. The patients’ status improved on hospital discharge in 70.6% of cases. The postoperative outcome was significantly worse (P 0.03) in those patients with postbasal lesions with poor clinical performance index preoperatively.
CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the many inherent challenges of a typical developing country health system, there are great

Ponseti clubfoot management: changing surgical trends in Nigeria.


Congenital clubfoot treatment continues to be controversial particularly in a resource-constrained country. Comparative evaluation of clubfoot surgery with Ponseti methods has not been reported in West Africa.To determine the effects of Ponseti techniques on clubfoot surgery frequency and patterns in Nigeria.This was a prospective hospital-based intention-to-treat comparative study of clubfoot managed with Ponseti methods (PCG) and extensive soft tissue surgery (NPCG). The first step was a nonselective double-blind randomization of clubfoot patients into two groups using Excel software in a university teaching hospital setting. The control group was the NPCG patients. The patients’ parents gave informed consent, and the medical research and ethics board approved the study protocol. Biodata was gathered, clubfoot patterns were analyzed, Dimeglio-Bensahel scoring was done, the number of casts applied was tallied, and patterns of surgeries were documented. The cost of care, recurrence and outcomes were evaluated. Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney U technique were used, and an alpha error of < 0.05 at a CI of 95% were taken to be significant.We randomized 153 clubfeet (in 105 clubfoot patients) into two treatment groups. Fifty NPCG patients (36.2%) underwent manipulation and extensive soft tissue surgery and 55 PCG patients (39.9%) were treated with Ponseti methods. Fifty-two patients of the Ponseti group had no form of surgery (94.5% vs. 32%, p<0.000). Extensive soft tissue surgery was indicated in 17 (34.0%) of the NPCG group, representing 8.9% of the total of 191 major orthopaedic surgeries within the study period. Thirty-five patients (70.0%) from the NPCG group required more than six casts compared to thirteen patients (23.6%) of the PCG (p<0.000). The mean care cost was high within the NPCG when compared to the Ponseti group (48% vs. 14.5%, p<0.000). The Ponseti-treated group had fewer treatment complications (p<0.003), a lower recurrence rate (p<0.000) and satisfactory early outcome (p<0.000).Major clubfoot surgery was not commonly indicated among patients treated with the Ponseti method. The Ponseti clubfoot technique has reduced total care costs, cast utilization, clubfoot surgery frequency and has also changed the patterns of surgery performed for clubfoot in Nigeria.

Delayed access to care and unmet burden of pediatric surgical disease in resource-constrained African countries.


The purpose of this study was to estimate the unmet burden of surgically correctable congenital anomalies in African low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).We conducted a chart review of children operated for cryptorchidism, isolated cleft lip, hypospadias, bladder exstrophy and anorectal malformation at an Ethiopian referral hospital between January 2012 and July 2016 and a scoping review of the literature describing the management of congenital anomalies in African LMICs. Procedure numbers and age at surgery were collected to estimate mean surgical delays by country and extrapolate surgical backlog. The unmet surgical need was derived from incidence-based disease estimates, established disability weights, and actual surgical volumes.The chart review yielded 210 procedures in 207 patients from Ethiopia. The scoping review generated 42 data sets, extracted from 36 publications, encompassing: Benin, Egypt, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Madagascar, Malawi, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The largest national surgical backlog was noted in Nigeria for cryptorchidism (209,260 cases) and cleft lip (4154 cases), and Ethiopia for hypospadias (20,188 cases), bladder exstrophy (575 cases) and anorectal malformation (1349 cases).These data support the need for upscaling pediatric surgical capacity in LMICs to address the significant surgical delay, surgical backlog, and unmet prevalent need.Retrospective study and review article LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.